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If you are familiar with Max Planck's work or Albert Einstein's photo-electric effect, then you know energy comes in discrete pac...

## Tuesday, August 1, 2017

### Adding Gravity to the Standard Model Lagrangian

Here is one version of the Standard Model Lagrangian. Click on the image below to learn more details. Lagrangian L =

Now you have probably been told a gazillion times that the Standard Model does not include gravity, that Einstein's field equations are incompatible with the big messy equation you see above. Let's have a look at the field equations:

The energy-stress tensor (Tij) provides a clue to how we can unify gravity with the Standard Model. Its units are energy density or energy over a volume (V). The Lagrangian has units of energy. Hmmmm ... if we contract the tensor indices and do a little algebra, we get equation 5 below:

Equation 5 shows that the scalar or zero-order tensor T is equivalent to the Lagrangian (L) divided by a volume (V). That leads us to equation 6 below:

We can now see the relationship between gravity and the other forces. If we do a little more algebra, we get an interesting result:

At equation 9 we add the newly-formed gravity Lagrangian to the Standard Model Lagrangian. Doing this yields the ground-state vacuum energy--and this quantity is consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe measurement. So if we add gravity to the Standard Model as illustrated above, we not only get a result that is mathematically consistent, but also consistent with observations.