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Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is perhaps the most precise and successful theory in all of physics. There is, as I've mentioned in pre...

## Monday, August 7, 2017

### How to Conserve Dark Energy and the Rest

In the above video the Physics Girl discusses how the expanding universe causes galaxies to move apart, and in turn causes photon wavelengths to stretch out. As photon wavelengths grow, they lose energy. "Where does the energy go?" she asks.

Other physicists, including myself, have a different question: "Where does dark energy come from?" As the universe expands, there is apparently more dark energy and less photon energy? Perhaps energy is conserved after all. If nothing else, it can be mathematically demonstrated. First, let's define the variables:

Equation 1 below shows how photon energy (Ep) is a function of its wavelength (lambda). The bigger lambda gets, the smaller the photon energy.

Equation 2 is dark energy (Ed)--a function of energy density (pd) times volume (V). As volume gets bigger, so does dark energy.

Equation 3 below shows the universe's radius (r) depends on how much dark energy there is. Equation 4 shows photon wavelength depends on how little photon energy there is:

Consider the universe's history. It started out with little or no space (dark energy) and it was very hot (photon energy). Over time space grew and the universe cooled (more dark energy, less photon energy). One way to conserve energy is to multiply photon energy and dark energy together. This creates a constant: as one energy grows, the other shrinks, but their product is always constant. Below we do a little algebra to get the product of the two energies:

Now, one thing we note is both energies are motion energies. Neither is at rest. Given the fact both energies have momentum (p) (due to mass or mass equivalence) we can make a substitution and derive equation 7 below:

You might recognize the momentum-energy term on equation 7's left side. It appears in this famous equation:

Einstein's energy equation, in this instance, shall represent the universe's total momentum and rest-mass energy. If we make one more substitution we get this:

Equation 9 above says the universe's conserved energy is the square root of dark energy times boson energy plus rest-mass energy squared. It includes all matter, radiation and vacuum energy.